The Shunters from the 1950s
Diesel Electric 0-6-0
Ten shunters had been ordered each year (1945/46/47) for construction at Derby. Although the demand for further shunters was high it would not be until 1950 that further orders took place - see table below. The first two orders were simply follow-ons to those placed in 1945, 1946 & 1947.
Diesel electric 0-6-0 BR 12069 - 12102 (Order #'s 4311 & 5127)
This order was simply a follow on from the previous LMSR batch, the only change being that it was ordered under the auspices of post-Nationalisation British Railways. A following order for 12103 - 12138 was given to Darlington Workshops for construction.
The Derby built examples remained in service from December 1968 until June 1972. Nine went into industrial service, a number of those lasting long enough to reach preservation.
Diesel electric 0-6-0 BR 13000 series (Various Orders)
The operational experience gained from the GWR/LMSR/LNER/SR shunters saw some changes made to the future orders. The most significant alteration to the existing design was the increase of the wheel diameter to 54 inches, which allowed the coupling rods and cranks rods to adequately clear the Southern Region's electrified third rail and yet remain within the universal 'L1' loading gauge. This change was based on the 26 0-6-0 locomotives built at Ashford in 1949 - 1952. These had been numbered 15211 - 15236 (Class 12). Other changes to future orders affected the chassis so as to accomodate equipment supplied from various sources with the minimum of alterations. Changes were also made to the cab.
Once the LMSR/BR orders for the Class 11 shunters were completed the ensuing orders reflected the changes referenced in the previous paragraph. These would eventually become known as the Class 08 totalling almost twelve hundred 0-6-0 shunters. Derby would build 508 of these locomotives, Darlington, Crewe, Horwich & Swindon also received orders.
The first of the standard Class 08s - 13000 to 13014 were completed at Derby during 1952, none went to the LMR, they were about equally divided between the WR, ScR & SR.
The first variation occurred with 13117 - 13126 (later 3117 - 3126). These ten machines were powered by a Crossley 6cyl ESNT engine with Crompton Parkinson providing the two traction motors. Whilst dual sourcing of equipment has advantages it soon became obvious that the non-English Electric equipped shunters were considered 'non-standard' and were the first to be withdrawn. These ten locomotives were retired between December 1966 and July 1967, all were broken up by May 1968. 3121 ended its days at Derby Works.
There followed two other variants, those powered with a Blackstone engine with GE (146 built) or BTH (15 built) electrical equipment, however these were not built at Derby. All the remaining Class 08's built at Derby were of the standard design. Although Derby's last shunter built was 4010, its order books originally contained a further order for D4011 - D4027, these were diverted to Horwich at the end of 1960. However the Works would remain heavily engaged in the building and repair of Classes 24/25/44/45/46 and the repair of much of the other LMR diesel fleet, and the commissioning of news diesels left the Workshops very busy!
The prototype Fell locomotive, numbered 10100 was finally completed at Derby Works during the summer of 1950, with running trials commencing during December. This was a 2,000hp diesel mechanical locomotive, a unique locomotive to run on British Railways.
During early February Derby Locomotive Works recieved four L.T.S.4-4-2s 41971/72/73/74 from Durranhill for scrapping. As L.M.S. 2153 - 2156 they had been transferred to Dundee in January 1948, then on to Perth & Stirling. They were highly disliked and were transferred to Skipton on June 19th 1948, but got no further than Durranhill where they all went into store, seeing no further revenue earning service. After nearly seven years in store (a record of some sort?) they were moved into the shed on February 6th 1955 to be prepared for travel. On February 10th they were noted in the Leeds area behind 90769, though a hot box on one locomotive saw them stopped at Holbeck. After arrival at Derby Works the locomotives did not linger, by early March they had been broken up. Forty years later some withdrawn Class 25s would have similar stories of a drawn out demise.
The Modernisation Plan, 1955 onwards (a brief summary)
With the established history of diesel locomotive building at Derby Works it was no surprise that two of the Modernisation Plan designs were to be built there. Frames for twenty of the BR/Sulzer Type 2's & ten BR/Sulzer Type 4's were laid down in 1958/1959. The 'meltdown' of the intended direction of the 1955 Modernisation Plan led to many new orders being placed. The BR/Sulzer Type 2 had become one of the favoured 'standard' designs with the result that a further 131 were ordered, with Crewe & Darlington sharing in the orders. For the BR/Sulzer Type 4's a further 127 were ordered, shared between Derby & Crewe.
The first of the Class 24s, D5000 was completed during the summer of 1958, coming off the production line amidst new Class 08's D3545 - D3555. Based on my humble list D5000 was the 465th diesel locomotive to be built at Derby. A year later, in September, the first of the BR/Sulzer Type 4's was delivered, D1 'Scafell Pike' amidst shunters D3777 - D3783 and Type 2's D5020 - D5023. D1 was (give or take) the 527th diesel locomotive built at Derby.
As the 1950s closed Derby was busy, very busy, the last of the Class 44's, D10 'Tryfan' was about to be delivered, the shunters had reached D3802 and the Class 24's had reached D5068. The Works was also handling the repairs for the growing LMR diesel fleet and was commissioning the new diesels that were to be allocated to the LMR.
During 1960 the Class 08 & Class 24 production lines continued with the first of the Scottish Class 24's, D5114, turned out in April, featuring a redesigned cab roof incorporating a four charachter route indicater, and a cleaned up cabfront with the circular indicator discs removed. During spring a new production line opened up, being a follow on from the Class 44's, now with the uprated 2,500hp engine. The last half of 1960 was probably one of the busiest times at Derby with these three diesel types in production and ongoing repairs to both the diesel & steam fleet. As the year closed out Derby's final shunter, D4010 emerged alongside the last few examples of the Class 24's and the first half dozen Class 45's.
1961 started with the last Class 24, D5150, delivered in February leaving Derby to concentrate on construction of the Class 45's from the block D11 - D49. If my calculations are correct D21 became the 700th diesel built at Derby, outshopped in March. When the order for the Class 45's was completed another fifty six had been ordered (D138 - D193), substantially the same except for the electrical equipment, this last build became the Class 46's. The first of these was outshopped in November 1961.
Production of the Class 46's continued throughout 1962, with the last example, D193 being outshopped in January 1963, just in time to experience one of the severest winters in fifteen years. Coming after this production run was a further batch of Type 2's, now equipped with the uprated 1,250hp engine, the first of which had gone into D5151 - D5175, being built at Darlington. For Derby's examples the bodystyle remained similar to the final Class 24's, though with some noticeable changes, gone were some of the styling features and the boiler/fuel tank arrangement was altered. Derby's batch ran from D5186 - D5222, the order for D5223 - D5232 was transferred to Darlington whilst Derby worked on a cleaned up redesigned bodyshell for the next order of Class 25's. As usual with such a large order there were bound to be 'odd men out' and for Derby it was D7568 - D7577, these ten machines followed on from D5222 retaining the same body style but with GEC series Two equipment, yet numerically out of order.
D5201 was the 800th diesel locomotive built at Derby, delivered during June 1963.
At the end of the summer of 1963 the first of the frames were laid for the redesigned Class 25 bodyshell, by December 1963 D5233 was ready to go into traffic. Unique to this batch (D5233 - D5238) was the fitting of boilers, beyond D5239 all the Class 25's coming out of Derby were without train heating equipment.
Production continued on through 1963 & 1964 with the 900th diesel rolled out in November 1964, the lucky winner being D7502.
More of the same occurred in 1965, Derby's 950th diesel locomotive appearing as D7552 in July 1965. Oddball D5299 was delivered way out of sequence during November 1965. This had been the intended testbed for the R series Sulzer 6 cylinder engine, but major problems with the 12LDA28C in the Class 47's diverted all available resources away from new projects. Thus D5299 was completed as a normal Class 25 a year after its numerical sisters.
In September 1966 D7623 came off the production line, the 992nd diesel constructed at Derby. It would have been the last except for the request by Beyer Peacock Ltd, Manchester, who were building D7624 - 7677, to be released from their contract for the final eighteen locomotives. Derby took back the construction for D7660 - D7677 with the final locomotive delivered to traffic in May 1967, the last of 1,010 diesel locomotives built at Derby Works.
Although D7677 was the final diesel locomotive built at Derby, the Works completed one more 'locomotive' order, for six electric non-driving motor coaches to power the six Advanced Passenger Train formations. These were built in 1978/79 and were numbered 49001 - 49006.
10800 visited Derby Works during May to permit power unit repairs.
During the summer of 1955 10100 started a lengthy spell in Derby Works, remaining here at least until August 1957.
The delivery of increasing numbers of railcars to the network led to the overhaul work being handled by the regional workshops. Derby Carriage and Wagon Works allocated space totalling 40,000 sq ft in the lifting shop for the overhaul of railcars on progressive lines. However the overhaul of the railcar engines, gearboxes, transmissions and final drives would be handled by Derby Locomotive Works, with an existing shop being adapted for this purpose.
Early February found nine diesel locomotives under repair, including 10800 and almost brand new D8010 & D8011, the latter pair having been recently on loan to Bradford.
March saw work commence on the first locomotive for order D251, D5000. The middle of March saw the Works including ED2, 15001, 11147 (to become 2508), 10000, 10001, 10201 & 10800. Noted in sorry shape were 12000 & 12001.
By April the shunter order had reached D3519 and four Class 24s were under construction. 10201 was still present in the Works.
By the middle of May Class 24 construction had reached to D5006, with D5000 almost complete. The shunter order was moving swiftly, all the Western Region bound shunters were in some state of construction whilst work on D3528 - D3524 for the Scottish Region had started. A considerable quantity of steam locomotives continued to pass through the Works, for classified and unclassified repairs, some for stripping and scrap, whilst others came for stripping prior to movement elsewhere for final scrapping.
Shunter construction had reached D3536 during June whilst Class 24 construction had stopped at D5006.
During July D8000 visited Derby for attention prior to commencing dynamometer car testing from Toton. Also present at this time was D8015 in the diesel shop. Shunter construction had reached D3539, Class 24 construction was still stalled at D5006, little would be done during the Works summer holiday. Towards the end of July D5000 was released from the Works and paid a visit to Marylebone for inspection by the BTC.
With the Works holiday over the construction picked up at Derby with shunters under construction reaching D3552 and work had commenced on D5007.
The Works Open Day on August 30th featured on display in front of the Works offices: D3542, D5001, D5700, 70017 & 92166. The 9F was equipped with a mechanical stoker was was on its way to the Rugby Testing Station. Visitors to the Works could find three production lines (see photos above) of new diesels involving Class 08 shunters, the D5000 series Type 2's and the very beginning of the larger Type 4's to be numbered D1-D10. Also present were many steam locomotives undergoing repair.
Shunter construction had reached D3558 during September, Class 24's were up to D5009 and the frames of D1 & D2 were noted. Steam repairs continued at a high volume to LMSR and BR Standard types, some received repaints on outshopping others did not.
By October construction had commenced on D3562, D5010 & D3, priority appears to have been given to the shunters and then the Class 24's. A recent visitor to the Works was 15000 which was outshopped in green livery.
Fell locomotive 10100 returned to Derby Works for the last time during November 1958. A train heating boiler had caught fire at Manchester Central on October 16th 1958 causing serious damage to other parts of the locomotive, sadly ironic that the locomotive would be retired by a component in no way related to its very unusual engine/gearbox set up. And also ironic that the heating boiler would become the achilles heel for many of BR's modernisation fleet locomotives. The Fell locomotive was withdrawn after reaching Derby, with no future it would be slowly stripped of parts.
Elsewhere in the Works shunter construction had reached the last of the present order, D3572 whilst no new construction had occurred on the Class 24/44's.
Little change was noted in December on locomotive construction with the shunters moving along the fastest.
Details from a Derby Locomotive Works publication prepared for the visit of the Chairman & Members of the London Midland Area Board on Thursday November 5th 1959 2.45pm to 4.15pm. Cars from the Mifdland Hotel were to go direct to the Boiler Shop Entrance (Bottom Yard).
Output of Repaired Locomotives during 1958:
Output of New Locomotives 1958
Number of Diesel Railcar engine units reconditioned during 1958: 220
Scheduled output of New Locomotives 1959
Works Organisation & Administration
The Production Office comprises the following sections:
The Organisation controls the manufacture of all types of work., whether it be for new locomotives, stock replenishment or work of a miscellaneous nature. Operation layouts are compiled by the Estimating Section for all details and these indicate the machines to be used, feeds, speeds etc. Estimates for new work and modifications to locomotives are also prepared and the actual expenditure is controlled by the Section. Special tools and fixtures are designed by the Jig and Tool Section, whilst the progress of material delivery and manufacture is pursued by the Progress Section, who also prepare the prospective dates on which material should be to hand so that all machine and fitting groups can be loaded with their proportion of work. Extensive use of 'Kardex' slotted charts enables the Progress Staff to tell immediately when and where delay is imminent so that pressure can be exerted where necessary.
Time Studies are directed from the Ratefixing Section by Staff designated as Ratefixers, who observe and register piecework prices. Concise records are kept by this Section of all operating times and prices. Production within the Works is assisted by well established Incentive Schemes, and their value has been proved over a number of years.
The Locomotive Repair Organisation controls the shopping of locomotives for repairs, the provision of an economic stock of boilers, the repair methods and the authorisation by Initial Examiners of all repair work to be carried out on locomotives, tenders and boilers. Responsibilities embrace the progressing of material for locomotives on the Works and also for those awaiting components at Motive Power Depots. Forecasts are made for the future requirements of major components such as cylinders, tyres, crank axles, wheels etc which ensures their availability when the locomotives are received on the Works for repair. The progressing of special fitments and modifications to locomotives is also undertaken.
The Plant Engineer is responsible for the purchase, installation and modification of all Works Plant and Machinery. Life expired and obsolete machines are earmarked for replacement and competitive quotations are obtained for equipment of modern design before orders are finally placed. Layouts of the new schemes and the design of specialised machinery are carried out in this Office which also controls and follows up their installation. Close co-operation between this section and the Millwright's Shop ensures that a strict schedule is maintained for the repair and overhaul of machinery and plant on the Works.
The Works Inspection Department ensures that components are machined within drawing tolerances which guarantees interchangeability and easy assembly. The Department is responsible to the Works Manager through the Chief Finished Work Inspector.
The Works Training School
Apprentice trainees are paid the standard scale rates for Juniors, a monthly bonus being awarded as an encouragement for good work. The Chief Instructor is directly responsible to the Assistant to the Works Manager (Training). Practical instruction in the Workshops is covered by Instructors who have been selected for their knowledge of the trades concerned. Theoretical instruction is given by lecturers from the Staff of the Derby and District College of Technology and selected members of the Railway Technical Staff.
2. Engineering Apprentices
3. Sandwich Course
Boiler repairs are carried out on the South-Eastern side of the shop. The layout allows the boilers to be repaired on a progressive system, distinct operations being performed in specific positions which are equipped to deal with the particular work in hand. In this way the required output is obtained with the minimum number of boilers in the Shop at any one time. The special equipment consists of rigs for removing the firebox stays in the initial stages and for later reaming and tapping holes for new stays. Many of the heavier tools are suspended by balancing devices from an overhead framework. Standard equipment includes a hydraulic riveting plant, electric rivet heaters, electric stay drilling and tapping machines and pneumatic riveting tools and stay drivers.
One Section deals with the cutting and machining of plates and the building-up of complete assemblies, some of the more notable items being the side truss structures for the main line diesel locomotives, which are assembled in two large rotatable welding jigs; the Type 4 locomotive cabs; roof sections; frame stretchers and many other components for both main line and shunting locomotives. Another bay houses the heavy drilling, planing and shaping machines, whilst nearby there are small hydraulic presses which produce many thousands of firebox baffle plates and other small pressings.
One of the bays contains separate cubicles for Electric Arc Welding. Fabrication of many locomotive details by electric welding has increased greatly in recent years and as a result, the elimination of much riveting, bolting and other laborious work has been made possible. Considerable quantities of locomotive details that would otherwise be put to scrap are reclaimed by building-up with electric weld deposit on cracked or worn surfaces. A Metropolitan Vickers machine for the automatic deposition of electric weld on shafts, axles and beam ends is available; also plant for building up non-ferrous details by metal spraying. Welding techniques are constantly being improved and in addition to the Nitrogen Arc welding of copper firebox plates two comparatively new processes, those of Submerged Arc welding for selected steel details and the Argon Arc welding of aluminium, have been introduced.
Heavy duty presses of 500 and 350 tons capacity, operated by hydraulic pressure at 1,650lbs. per sq. inc, deal with the pressing of major locomotive and boiler components from copper and steel plate. Before pressing the plates are heated in oil-fired furnaces to approximately 1,000C. Situated on the South-Western side of the Shop are the large power operated plate rolls which are used for straightening plates or rolling the curved barrel plates for boilers.
Two types of main line locomotives are being built; the Type 4 2,300HP with a 1-Co-Co-1 wheel arrangement and the Type 2, 1,160HP with Bo-Bo wheel arrangement. Both types are powered by Sulzer diesel enginesbut the former has Crompton Parkinson transmission whilst the latter has BTH equipment.
Diesel Finishing Shop
Diesel Locomotive Test House
Machine and Fitting Shop
At the South-Eastern end of the shop are the separate Sections concerned with the machining and fitting operations on axleboxes; brakework; the Section which deals with the machining of brass details for the many valves, cocks, injectors and ejectors which are fitted to locomotives; and a further Section concerned with the turning, screwing and tapping of many small components such as bolts, nuts, pins, studs and rivets. This latter Section is staffed entirely by Apprentices. Close by, is the battery of Automatics which is employed upon similar work where the production is required in quantity.
Situated in the centre of the Shop is the Toolroom, which is equipped with special gear-cutting, thread-grinding and jig-boring equipment, producing tools and gauges to the necessary close limits. These tools and gauges are housed in a well arranged Gauge Stores which is attached to the Toolroom. On one side of the Toolroom, is the General Turning Section which is an extensive layout of every type of lathe, both vertical and horizontal, and a Grinding Section equipped with many different types of machines; whilst on the other side of the Toolroom the Shaping and Slotting Sections are located. Near to the last named Sections is the large Innocenti boring and milling machine which has been recely installed. At the North-Western end of the Shop, are the Drilling, Planing and Milling Sections and on the large machines of the latter Section the familiar coupling and connecting rods are machined.
Heat Treatment Plant
Brass Fitting Section
Diesel Erecting Shop
Diesel locomotives require a great deal more internal painting than steam locomotives and all service pipes and connections have to be painted in their appropriate B.S.S. colour. Staff of this Department are also engaged upon the internal painting of the Workshops and the painting of Works Equipment.
Diesel Railcar Engine Repair Shop
The cleaned parts are examined and those details which are retained are placed in storage racks to await repair. Parts which require machining are passed to the Machine Shop, whilst other items are dealt with at the fitting benches in the Shop. New and repaired details are stored in racks adjacent to the engine assembly positions.After assembly the engines are inspected before being transported to the dynamometer test plant which is housed in a separate building near the Shop.
Pattern and Joinery Shop
The Patternmaking Section is concerned with making and modifying patterns for both hand and machine moulding in the Brass Foundry. In connection with the production of multiple patterns for machine moulding plates, metal patterns have recently been replaced by patterns produced in a plastic process using an epoxide resin. This modern process is proving to be most satisfactory and has many advantages over the previous method. All the woodworking machinery is of modern design, and includes a Wadkin Universal Milling Machine which is capable of machining many difficult contours on patterns.
Attached to the Shop is a separate Section which deals with the overhaul of Steam, Diesel and Manual travelling cranes of up to 50 tons capacity, which are used for general and breakdown work. A test bed is provided which enables exhaustive crane tests to be carried out on the completion of repairs.
Smith and Spring Shop
The Centre of the Shop consists of the Blacksmiths Section where the general forgings required by the Works are manufactured by hand or by means of the battery of 10 cwt. Massey Electro-pneumatic hammers. Two Flash Butt welding machines, one capable of welding an area of 9 square inches and the other 5 square inches, are located in this part of the Shop. At the South-Eastern end of the Shop is installed the equipment for the quantity production of nut, bolt and small detail forgings.
Boiler Mounting Shop
Sheet Metalwork Shop
Hot Brass Pressing Shop
Works Internal Transport
A number of other vehicles including mobile cranes, the lorry and a loading shovel are used by the Department. Five of the tractors, the lorry, and a mobile crane are fitted with radio telephone transmitter/receivers, the control station being located in the transport foreman's office. Repairs to the motor vehicles up to, but not including, rebores are carried out by the Maintenance Staff at the Works Garage.
The Power Station
Locomotive and General Stores
The New Year brought new construction to the Works with work taking place on D5011 - D5013 and D4, whilst a new order of shunters (order D1400) started with D3763 & D3764. Under repair in the Works included 10000, 10800, 12000, 15004, D8014, ED2 & ED7. Also accumulating in the Works were a growing number of stored steam locomotives, others could also be found around the station area and at St Mary's goods yard.
Even though D1 was still months away from completion an order was confirmed for 137 further locomotives of the Type similar to D1-D10, currently under construction at Derby. This new order would be split between Derby & Crewe.
During February the shunter construction had advanced to D3765 and the Class 24's had reached to D5016. It was at that this time the D1 - D10 locomotives would receive names of mountains within England & Wales. Visitors to the Works included 10001, 10203, 10800, 12000, D8001 & D2910. The withdrawn Fell locomotive had now migrated from the depot to the Works.
By March the shunter construction had reached D3767 and D5017 had been started. Diesels under repair included 10202, 10800, 11127 & 12001.
Another order for the BR/Sulzer Type 2 was placed, a further 37 went into the order books, nineteen for the Scottish Region, fourteen for the London Midland Region and four for the North Eastern Region. They would be numbered D5114 - D5150 and were scheduled to be built at Derby.
April construction had reached D3771, D5019 and D5 and the names for D1 - D10 had now been published, this Class of ten would quickly become known as the Peak class. In the Works were ED4, ED5, 10202 & D5714. Moved to the Klondyke sidings were 10100 & 10800.
During May the shunter construction had reached D3773, frames were laid for D5 & D6, D5019 was still the highest numbered Class 24 on the Works. The first of the Peak's, D1 was now complete. Locomotives under repair included ED4, ED5, D5702 & 10202.
By early July shunter construction had reached D3783 and Derby's second order of Class 24's had reached D5023. Some of the stored steam locomotives on the Works premises had been there for over a year whilst most sidings around the Derby area were host to many other withdrawn steam locomotives. And gradually these locomotives were towed away to private breakers.
There was little change in the Works production as August began, possibly due to the Works holiday break in July. The shunters had reached D3786, the Class 24's to D5025 and D6 was still the latest Class 44. 10800 which had been dumped at Derby Works for a while was withdrawn at the beginning of August.
The Works Open Day on August 29th featured the following locomotives on display in front of the office block: 70004 William Shakespeare, 92165, D2 Helvellyn, D5021 & D3782. Diesel production still consisted of three types, the Class 08 shunters, the Class 44's and the Class 24's. Derby had just completed its initial Modernisation Plan order of twenty Type 2's, being built now were the next ten D5020-D5029. The Works were still heavily involved with steam repair, but as a sign of the times long lines of withdrawn steam locomotives could now be found not only on the Works premises but also alongside Derby Midland station, in St Andrews Goods yard, at Chaddesden and Spondon Jct. In all almost one hundred steam locomotives could be found at these locations, and the vast majority would be towed away to other locations for scrapping.
September saw shunter construction up to D3792, Class 24's as far as D5027 and work on D7 was well underway.
By October Derby's second order for Class 24's was complete with construction underway on D5029, the shunters had reached D3796 and work on D8 was progressing well. Visitors to the Works included D5719 & D8210 on test.
During November Derby was well into its third order of Class 24's with D5066 - D5068 under construction, elsewhere work had already started on the last of the Class 44's, D10. Additionally Derby's shunter order ending with D3802 was complete with the laying of the frames for the last of the batch followed by several for the next order numbered D2277 starting with D3937. Repairs included ED6, whilst D8211 had arrived for acceptance testing.
December saw the Works moving along with its third Class 24 order, construction had reached D5070, whilst D10 was almost complete, but there was little change with the shunter order. The variety of diesels under repair continued to grow, those present included ED6, 12093, D5705, D8002 & D8209 to mention afew. The great variety of locomotives under repair continued with the likes of 10000, D2220 & D2901 during February.
Principal Sources Used in no particular order:
Diesel & Electric Disposal; A Butlin, Coorlea Publishing 1987
Page added October 22nd 2007.